Cologne, December 12. 1655

An account of the Intelligence Capt. Manning did pass to Mr Thurloe with reference to Lady Lucy Walter in Cologne ’55

from Covent Garden, December 12. 1696

My lord,

In my last I gave some account of the manner of Capt. Manning’s correspondence methods. Now I will give some knowledge as to the intelligence he did gather for Mr Thurloe. As you know, the King did arrive in Cologne in October ’54 and Capt. Manning did arrive in the Scotch King’s court not long after. This was a time when the King and the Princess Royal where moving from Aachen to Cologne and their party was much diminished. It is my understanding that Manning travelled via the Hague attaching himself into the company of Mr Howard, Dr Earle and Mr Price. It likely that he used his wound from Cheriton Wood, to renew his family relationship with Lord Norwich and others who fought alongside him in Howard’s Horse Brigade.

With these connections secured, Manning started with the passing of simple information, but was not in the circle involved in the Penrudduck Rising for these plans started before the King’s arrival at Cologne. However, he did become a courier for Mr Price, Col. Phelipps and others. In this way he gained the trust and methods of gathering intelligence. By March, Manning was able to send word to London of the members of the ’55 rising, their pseudonyms and whereabouts. It was now that his value to Mr Thurloe increased justifying a direct communication route and cypher. After this, Capt. Manning travels to Antwerp, the Hague and other places only returning to the Scotch Kings court in August of that year.

During this autumn the Manning intelligence focused on the Kings alliance with catholic Spain and the Pope as a counter the peace between Oliver and the French. All-a-while, Sexby and other 5th Monarchists had been passing rich information to the Spain, who’s officials were fully aware of the intelligence leaks in Cologne. Thus, it was the Spanish agents in London that uncovered Manning and handed him to Lord Norwich in late November ’55.

Now as promised, I shall now pass you some of the intelligence he did gather with relation to Mr Howard and Lady Walter.  Therefore, we shall return to October 31, ’54. It was now that the Duke of Neuburg did give a great party in honour of the Scotch King and the Princess Royal. During which Dr Morley did openly tell those on his table, and that of the Tom Howard, that the King had married Lady Lucy Walter in ’48, for he was present. This became a great scandal and focus of many letters within the exiled court both in Cologne and Paris. To which the Papist party did make great cause for their champion the Duke of York.

I’m sure that it is for this reason, that on the occasion of Lady Walter’s visit to Cologne in January ’55 [NS], Manning did write:

“The Duke of Gloucester being something indisposed at Antwerp, Dr Frazer is sent to him by the King. Tom Howard is here from the Princess Royal. Sir Henry Darcie hath been here some time, which I forgot to tell you of, where lies a story concerning Mrs Barlo, but peace. You may know more hereafter. She is here with her young heir.” *

It is clear, my lord, that firstly even in Cologne the talk was very open as to the marriage between Lucy and Charles. And secondly, in all contradiction to the words of both the Scotch King and his tyrant Brother, Lady Walter did visit the King in Cologne. This so acutely shows that this evidence, written without malice or forethought, is just cause as we believe, as to the truth of the Duke of Monmouth legitimacy. In my last on the matter of Capt. Manning, I shall write of his capture and death at the hands of the King himself.

Yours in the cause of liberty and property,

William Savage

* Editors note. Mrs Barlo or Barlow was the name that Lucy Walter lived under when in Europe. This letter was sent by Capt. Manning from Cologne under the pen name Joe Marsh on January 12, 1655 [NS]. It is only through gossip that Henry Manning would refer to the young James as ‘the heir’.