Historical Notes

Seventeenth Century Europe was engulfed in a power struggle between Louis XIV’s France and an anti-French alliance centred around Holland, Brandenburg and Imperial Austria. Whilst, Britain swayed between the two blocks, as power flowed back and forth between the Republic and Exiled Cavaliers, then the Tories and Whigs.  But to control Britain was to control the seas around Europe, therefore all sides in this European game, paid politicians, blackmailed nobles and murdered enemies. Importantly, Louis XIV had money and money was something Charles II always needed.

During his time in Exile, Charles II is surrounded by false friends and friendly enemies.  His court is described as a leaky bucket by the Spanish, his friends are in the pay of Cromwell, France, Spain, in fact anyone can buy favour. Charles’s court is funded by donations from his Sister in Holland, Spain and German Princes. His brother is a General in the French Army, his Mother is in Paris and France is an ally of Republican England. His Sister is in Holland, also allies of Cromwell’s England. Yet, Cromwell and France are at war with Spain, and Charles is now an ally of the Spanish and moves his court to Bruges. This is only the chaos and confusion at the start of the story.

Over the coming years, I will be editing and publishing the Papers, Letters and Memoirs of William Savage, the bastard half-brother of Lucy Walter, and uncle to James, Duke of Monmouth. Every attempt has been made to cross reference event against first hand or multiple second hand accounts. No dates have been changed to create a more compelling story.

Below you will find the Historical Notes for each Blog Post.

Historical Notes for Of Birth & Marriage

[1] The ‘Black Box’ never existed but there was a collection of letters and other documents. These were keep by Lucy as insurance and copies were made for the originals where captured by Cromwell’s men in ’56.

[2] The Black Box enquiry in April 1680 found that it did not, or no longer existed. However, this only looked into the content of ‘the Black Box’ which was alleged to be contract of Marriage between King Charles II and Madam Walter.

[3] At this time Lord Castlehaven was on campaign in Flanders with the young of Prince of Conde.

[4] Charles, Prince Rupert and others left Paris on the 25 June 1648

[5] Charles, Lucy, Prince Rupert and others sailed from Calais on the 9 July 1648 and they were back with the fleet on 16 July.

[6] The Earl of Ormond, Lord Castlehaven and party left Le Harve in a Dutch 24-gun Frigate on the 21st September to arrive on the 29th.

[7] There will be more about service in Ireland at a later date.

[8] There are many references in letters from Princess Mary to Lucy as ‘wife’ even as late as 1655.

Historical Notes in relation to the Account of the Marriage Contract between Lucy Walter and Charles Stuart.

[1] During the upheaval of the Civil War and Commonwealth, irregular, secret and non-conformist weddings had been common practise. After the restoration, the Church of England made many attempts to enforce church marriages with the reading of the banns, but during this period rates of defective marriages are 50% higher then in first half of the century.

[2] The City of Exeter had been held by the Kings forces since September ‘43, latterly under the command of Sir John Berkeley. Early in ’46 the Army of Parliament under Sir Thomas Fairfax, cut off the City from support and the final Siege of Exeter took place between the 31 March and 9th April ’46, and as part of the surrender terms the baby Princess Minette fell into Parliaments hands.

[3] After the surrender of Exeter Princess Minette and Lady Dalkeith became captives of Parliament but escaped to France in August ’46 but more of this another time.

[4] It the state papers, Hyde refers these rumours in a letter dated the 7th March 1647.

[5] The travels of Lucy Walter between 1644 and 1648 will be published at a future date.

[6] This is the modern city port of Le Havre, in Normandy.

[7] In May ’48, some of the Parliamentary Fleet at anchor off the downs, mutinied and sailed the short distance to Sluys (modern day Hellevoetsluis near Rotterdam).

[8] Lord Castlehaven’s commanded forces in the services of the King in Ireland, in France and finally in Flanders for the Spanish between 1647 and 1659.

[9] In ’48 the City of Liege have been an independent Bishopric for over a thousand years and was part of the crumbling Holy Roman Empire. The Bishop at this time was the catholic Ferdinand of Bavaria.

[10] In June ’80, there was a letter contradicting the denial of marriage published by Charles II. This was a long piece, covering much the same information as this Paper. It was likely that this was the work of Monmouth’s close friends. Reference to this fascinating document will appear again in these pages.

[11] It is a shame that so many historians, even today’s biographers of Monmouth, have never looked beyond the pointed first-hand accounts of the diarist John Evelyn, or the second-hand accounts found in the ‘Life of James, Duke of York (James II)’, which is a biography in defence of his actions. Then there are the third hand accounts of Carte, Roberts or Macphersan, which are again based on these two sources. Unfortunately, through this narrow view, the truth was drowned and never reached the shore. Like a game of Chinese Whispers, the same false, or fake, information flows through every reference to Lucy Walter, even down to today. As you will see unfold through the pages on this site, the Savage Truth will now come out.

Historical Notes in relation to the Of Mean Creatures regarding the family of Lucy Walter

[1] The ‘pamphleteer’ was John Evelyn, who published many books and opinions in the Gazettes or Newspapers and died in 1706. His collection of Letters and pamphlets was published as ‘Evelyn’s Diary’ in 1818. Within this is this reference to Lucy lineage. Evelyn was in Paris in 1649 and travelled with Lucy and Charles.

[2] Barlow, was the name of Lucy’s uncle-in-law, John Barlow Esq. Lucy used this as a pseudonym on many occasions after her marriage. It is likely, that it was under the false name of Mrs Barlow that she travelled to France in early 1648 and therefore would have had a passport made up in this name. As Mrs Barlow she would have been able to go about unnoticed.

[3] Elenor Vaughan, was sister of the 1st Earl of Carbery, John Vaughan

[4] Elisabeth’s siblings where Richard, married Jane Wogan; Margaret, wife of Peter Gosfright then Thomas Sambourne; Mary, wife of James Morgan; Dorothy, wife of Rev Hockley; Anne, wife of John Busfield; Penelope, wife of John Lloyd; Prudence, assumed wife of John Barlow; and Frances, wife of Morgan Jones then Thomas Jones then Mr Kynner

[5] Lucy’s grandfather, John Protheroe, was a well-known astronomer and friend of the ‘Wizard Earl’, Henry Percy the 9th Earl of Northumberland, who’s son introduced Charles II to this passion at an early age. They both owned telescopes made by Thomas Harriot, which passed down to her Uncle Richard, it was in this circle Lucy first meets Charles, possibly in 1638 or 1639. Please note, I have not been able to cross reference this information.

[6] They moved to London in late 1637 or early 1638 after another intrigue on the part of William Walter. A map of 1655 shows a small house behind King Street in Convent Garden, which is no longer there. At this time, Convent Garden was a new development, and a very fashionable address but this is for another publication.

[7] Lucy’s grandmother Mrs Elenor Protheroe, was widowed in 1624, and later married one Mr Gwynne in the village of St Giles, near today’s Tottenham Court Road Tube Station in London.

[8] Lucy’s great uncle was the 1st Earl of Carbery and the Royalist Commander in Pembrokeshire.

[9] This was her second marriage after the death of Rowland Walter on the 25 July 1619, and not as some have incorrectly written as the 15 November 1645. Otherwise she was a bigamist.

[10] At this time, the House of Lords had to settle divorce cases, and papers where submitted on the 26th May 1641. William Walter returned to Pembrokeshire, around this date.

Historical Notes in relation to Sir Gilbert Gerard at the Black Box enquiry

[1] This is the first part of a letter originally written in 1680 by an unknown hand. It is my belief that it was addressed to William, Lord Russell. William Russell was the leader of the Country Party (the Whigs) and member of the Green Ribbon Club. He married Rachel, Lady Vaughan daughter of the 2nd Earl of Carbery, a second-cousin of Lucy Walter (see Of Mean Creatures). He was very anti-James, Duke of York and was executed on the 21st July 1683.

[2] Sir Gilbert Gerard was a member of Parliament during the Commonwealth and returned for Westminster in 1660 but stood down in 1661 upon his knighthood. Don’t trust Wikipedia, for more information on Sir Gilbert this is a good source: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1660-1690/member/gerard-gilbert-i-1618-83

[3] Sir Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, 1641 to 1702

[4] His brother Francis Gerard, was a Royalist member of Parliament and was imprisoned during Pride’s Purge of Parliament. He died in December 1679

[5] Mr Coventry was secretary of state, although he resigned to Sir Lionel Jenkins not long after the enquiry

[6] This was Dr John Cosin 1595 to 1672, the Bishop of Durham. He was the Church of England Chaplin to Queen Henrietta in Paris from 1647 to 1660. In this roll he is reported to have been with Lucy Walter at her death.

[7] The date of the council meeting to ‘interview’ Sir Gilbert Gerard was the 26th April 1680

Historical Notes in relation to the Black Box Enquiry

[1] See Of Sir Gilbert Gerard

[2] This is the second part of letter originally written in 1680 by an unknown hand. It is my belief that it was addressed to William, Lord Russell. William Russell was the leader of the Country Party (the Whigs) and member of the Green Ribbon Club. He married Rachel, Lady Vaughan daughter of the 2nd Earl of Carbery, a second-cousin of Lucy Walter (see Of Mean Creatures). He was very anti-James, Duke of York and was executed on the 21st July 1683.

[3] Lucy Walter was reported by some to have confided in Dr Cosin on her death bed in Paris in 1658. All along she maintained that she was lawfully married to the King.

[4] Most marriages of this time where by word and token, with the marriage contract being in the form of letters and promise, forming the contract, see of Marriage and Birth. See of Marriage Contracts.

[5] Lucy Walter was in London in early summer 1656, here she was arrested and was imprisoned for several weeks in the Tower of London.

[6] It was in late 1657 that the Duke of Monmouth arrived in Paris, in the care of Thomas Ross.

[7] See of Mean Creatures